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The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal

Nepal is small mountain kingdom nestled in the Himalayas between China and India. Despite its long domination by outside powers, Nepal managed to retain its own unique culture and traditions. Since 1962, the monarchy has seen its absolute rule challenged by factions in Nepal. In that year, a constitution was agreed upon, but by 1980, the ruling government has abolished parties. This led to a  campaign of civil disobedience in 1985 that demanded to open party-based elections. By 1990, the king had bowed to the public’s demands. An election was held in 1991, and opposition Maoists won in 1994. However, the communists were defeated in 1995.

The monarchy continued to wield significant power, and a Maoist insurgency was formed with the goal of abolishing the kingship and reestablishing a communist people’s republic.  From 1995 to 2006, Maoists fought with government troops. In July of 2001, both parties reached a ceasefire, but the rebels had violated the truce within months. Fighting in November of that year cost hundreds of lives. The same happened in the summer of 2003, as peace talks broke down. In February 2005 the king dissolved the government and assumed direct control of Nepal. His state of emergency was lifted in April, and by November the Maoists and mainstream government parties were able to attempt a return to democracy. The king was forced to reinstate Parliament, which  immediately limited the king’s powers in May 2006. Five months later, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was signed by the Maoists and the government, thus ending the rebellion.

The CPA did not led to a lasting  peace. In early 2007 separatists engaged in violent ethnic clashes  in the south east. In September, Bomb blasts rocked Kathmandu, despite the inclusion of Maoists in the government. The communists in government grew restive, and continued to campaign for the dissolution of the Monarchy, and thus quit the interim government. They only rejoined in December after the Parliament abolished the monarchy. By May 2008, despite violence in the beginning of the year by separatists, Nepal became a republic.

It took only a year for the Maoists to leave the government after the formation of the republic after a clash over the integration of former rebels in the national armed force. Communists attacked and killed four in December 2008 in a western land-grab, and the nation again feared a renewed wave of violence. However, the prime minster bowed to Maoist pressure in June 2010 by resigning. This compromise allowed for relative peace. Though a new constitution has yet to be agreed upon, the internal conflicts in Nepal have subsided.